The Grand Council of the Crees

Taku River Tlingit First Nation v. British Columbia (Project Assessment Director)


Posted: 2004-11-18

On November 18, 2004, the Supreme Court of Canada rendered its decision in the case of Taku River Tlingit First Nation v. British Columbia (Project Assessment Director), [2004] S.C.J. No. 69, 2004 SCC 74, online: QL (S.C.C.). The following is a brief summary of the Court's decision.


Since 1994, a mining company Redfern Resources Ltd. ("Redfern") has sought permission from the British Columbia government to re-open an old mine. The Taku River Tlingit First Nation (TRTFN), which participated in a 3?-year environmental assessment process engaged in by the Province under the Environmental Assessment Act, objected to the company's plan to build a road through a portion of the TRTFN's traditional territory.

The proposed access road was only 160 km long, a geographically small intrusion on the 32,000-square km area claimed by the TRTFN. However, experts reported that the proposed road would pass through an area critical to the TRTFN's domestic economy. The TRTFN was also concerned that the road could act as a magnet for future development. The proposed road could therefore have an impact on the TRTFN's continued ability to exercise its Aboriginal rights and alter the landscape to which it laid claim.

The Province granted the project approval certificate in 1998. The TRTFN brought a petition to quash the decision on grounds based on administrative law and on its Aboriginal rights and title. The chambers judge concluded that the decision makers had not been sufficiently careful during the final months of the assessment process to ensure that they had effectively addressed the substance of the TRTFN's concerns. She set aside the decision and directed a reconsideration. The majority of the Court of Appeal upheld the decision, finding that the Province had failed to meet its duty to consult with and accommodate the TRTFN.



The Court held that the appeal of the Crown (Province of British Columbia) should be allowed.

Government duty to "consult" and "accommodate"

The B.C. government's duty to consult and accommodate Aboriginal peoples, even prior to proof of asserted Aboriginal rights and title, is grounded in the principle of the honour of the Crown. The duty of honour derives from the Crown's assertion of sovereignty in the face of prior Aboriginal occupation.

This duty of honour has been enshrined in s. 35(1) of the Constitution Act, 1982, which recognizes and affirms existing Aboriginal rights and titles. Section 35(1) has, as one of its purposes, negotiation of just settlement of Aboriginal claims. In all its dealings with Aboriginal peoples, the Crown must act honourably, in accordance with its historical and future relationship with the Aboriginal peoples in question. The Crown's honour cannot be interpreted narrowly or technically, but must be given full effect in order to promote the process of reconciliation mandated by s. 35(1).

As discussed in the Haida case, what the honour of the Crown requires varies with the circumstances. The duty to consult arises when a Crown actor has knowledge, real or constructive, of the potential existence of Aboriginal rights or title and contemplates conduct that might adversely affect them. This in turn may lead to a duty to change government plans or policy to accommodate Aboriginal concerns. Responsiveness is a key requirement of both consultation and accommodation.

The scope of the duty to consult is proportionate to a preliminary assessment of the strength of the case supporting the existence of the right or title, and to the seriousness of the potentially adverse effect upon the right or title claimed. It will vary with the circumstances, but always requires meaningful, good faith consultation and willingness on the part of the Crown to make changes based on information that emerges during the process.

The Crown's obligation to consult the TRTFN was engaged in this case. The Province was aware of the TRTFN's title and rights claims and knew that the decision to reopen the mine had the potential to adversely affect the substance of the TRTFN's claims. The TRTFN's claim is relatively strong, supported by a prima facie case, as attested to by its inclusion in the Province's treaty negotiation process. However, an Aboriginal group need not be accepted into the treaty process for the Crown's duty to consult to apply to them.

While the proposed road is to occupy only a small portion of the territory over which the TRTFN asserts title, the potential for negative derivative impacts on the TRTFN's claims is high. On the spectrum of consultation required by the honour of the Crown, the TRTFN was entitled to more than minimum consultation under the circumstances, and to a level of responsiveness to its concerns that can be characterized as accommodation. It is impossible, however, to provide a prospective checklist of the level of consultation required.

Province met its duty to consult meaningfully

The Province was required to consult meaningfully with the TRTFN in the decision-making process surrounding Redfern's project approval application. The TRTFN's role in the environmental assessment was, however, sufficient to uphold the Province's honour and meet the requirements of its duty.

In Haida, no consultation occurred at all at the disputed, "strategic" stage. That can be distinguished from the situation in this case, in which the TRTFN was consulted throughout the certification process and its concerns accommodated.

In this case, the process engaged in by the Province under the Environmental Assessment Act fulfilled the requirements of its duty to consult and accommodate. The TRTFN was part of the Project Committee, participating fully in the environmental review process. Its views were put before the decision makers, and the final project approval contained measures designed to address both its immediate and its long-term concerns.

The Province was not under a duty to reach agreement with the TRTFN, and its failure to do so did not breach the obligations of good faith that it owed the TRTFN.

Province has ongoing duty to consult and, if appropriate, accommodate

It is expected that, throughout the permitting, approval and licensing process, as well as in the development of a land use strategy, the Crown will continue to fulfill its honourable duty to consult and, if appropriate, accommodate the TRTFN.

Issuance of project approval certification does not constitute a comprehensive "go-ahead" for all aspects of a project. An extensive "permitting" process precedes each aspect of construction, which may involve more detailed substantive and information requirements being placed on the developer. Part 6 of the Project Committee's Recommendations Report summarized the requirements for licences, permits and approvals that would follow project approval in this case.

In addition, the Recommendations Report made prospective recommendations about what ought to happen at the permit stage, as a condition of certification. The Report stated that Redfern would develop more detailed baseline information and analysis at the permit stage, with continued TRTFN participation, and that adjustments might be required to the road route in response. The majority also recommended creation of a resource management zone along the access corridor, to be in place until completion of a future land use plan; the use of regulations to control access to the road; and creation of a Joint Management Committee for the road with the TRTFN. It recommended that Redfern's future Special Use Permit application for the road be referred to the proposed Joint Management Committee.